Tari is a district in Ayu Chiefdom of Sanga local government. They are among the minority ethnic groups in Southern Kaduna, Tari as a people has interested history and cultural heritage which need to be studied. Their historical, cultural, settlements, socio-economic and political structures need to be exposed and preserved. This research work intends to explore some of the significant part of the history of the Tari people up to 2014, with emphasis on their economic development, social and political organization.
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, deals with the general introduction of the research work, chapter two focus on the land and people of Tari, chapter three discusses the political, social and economic development of Tari before 1960, chapter four therefore, look at the political, social and economic transformation of Tari people after colonialism to the presence, and lastly, chapter five give the general summary, conclusion and recommendation of the research work.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Tari people had one way or another contributed to the development of Ayu chiefdom in Sanga Local Government of Kaduna State. They have interesting cultures and traditions yet not much of their history and cultures were preserved. Therefore, more researches need to be done to preserve the culture of the said group. However, very little is revealed or better still discussed on the history of the Tari people and their rich cultural heritage, which means there is a wide gap existing in their historiography particularly their tradition of origin. In spite of the problems stated, it is hope that this research will complement other works and act as a stimulus to more studies on the area.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of this research is to reconstruct the history of Tari people from 1960 to 2014, with emphasis on its political, social and economic development. The specific objectives of this research include;
To examines the history of the Tari people since independence 1960 – 2014.
To shed more light to the already little knowledge on the Tari history in general.
To discusses Britain colonial activities toward economic policies, political stratification and social transformation as well as impacts of colonial rule.
To identify and examine the politics involves in the creation of Tari district.
Finally, to suggest ways on how to maintain its history and cultural heritage.
SIGNIFICANCE AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
It is significant to study the history of Tari people. Which will however, benefits not only the people of Tari and generations, but ultimately to researchers that may be interested in writing more on Tari people.
Secondly, this study will provide basis for further research on the history of Tari and also to assist students to enhance their quest for knowledge.
To justify the study, it is important for one to bear in mind that there has not been much work on this topic. Historians have not paid much attention on smaller communities which have different dialects, thereby making the study of the Tari people a problem. There is hardly any published work on the people of this Area; most of the published works on the history Southern Kaduna communities have focused on larger societies of the region. This made the history of the smaller communities in the region yet to be exposed.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research covers the period of 54 years. It started from 1960 because, 1960 witnessed a massive changes in political and economic activities of the Tari people in particular and Nigeria in general as a result of British decolonization from the Nigerian society. This work concentrates on the historical event on the history of the Tari, especially social, economic and political history. The scope is within Tari District which consists of five major villages, which are Ungwan Sarki (Ajeh), Ungwan Gimba (Akai), Ungwan Mamman (Apot), Ungwan Ubandoma (Akobo), Ungwan Kako (Akoba). This work only limits its discussion on four of the villages listed above, all except otherwise may mention others. The study focuses and limits itself on the nature, norms, culture as well as socio-economic political history of Tari people. The research also looks at the tradition of origin, their relationship with neighbors as well as consequences of external intervention and influence on the polity.
History has many ways of collecting and gathering information. This research work used sources that are well known and widely used which include both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources are obtained through fieldwork in the form of oral interview which formed the bedrock of this research and archival materials are also consulted.
In terms of secondary sources, the research made use of books, published papers and articles journals and magazines, and unpublished seminar papers.
Literature review is aimed at discussing the existing literature on the research theme or topic and related theme. It seeks to highlight aspects of the theme already explored. Indeed in every historical research, literature review is very important because without it, a researcher stand the risks of repeating what others have done. This research work benefited substantially from both published and unpublished literatures. The review helps in opening gaps for a research on the Tari people.
In the work of A.H.M. Kirk- Greene, “Gazetteers of Northern Provinces of Nigeria”, vol. lV: the highland and chieftaincies, 1972. In his work he emphasized the fact that several tribes have congregated in the southern half of Jema’a Emirates. According to him, these must be the descendants of groups of people who branched from parent tribes living elsewhere, of whom several probably came from the Zaria, Keffi and Nasarawa Emirates. The Ayu and the Ninzam tribes are the only ones to have attained any political importance. The work gives an insight about the various ethnic groups, their origin and local beliefs, in their then former Plateau Province of Northern Nigeria. The book discusses some important aspects of the social and political history of the Ayu people in which the Tari fall under. It virtually ignored other significant aspects of their life such as the economic and relationship with their neighbors.
Isah Samuel’s work titled, “A History of the Tari People in the Colonial period 1903-1960”, provides vital information on the history of the Tari people. The author focuses mostly on the colonial economy and their socio-cultural practices, though the work ignored some important aspects of their culture. The work neglected the political history of the Tari which is the most important history of the Tari people. However, the work has given us a direction by providing a gap needed to be completed.
H.D. Gun. “Pagan People of the Central Area of Northern Nigeria”,1956. The work discusses intensively on different ethnic groups that made up the central Nigeria which include Gwaram, Kataf, Kajuru, Ikulu and Ham. However, the Tari were exclusive but it gives this work an insight as it provides a gap for the work.
O. Temple, “Tribes, Provinces, Emirate and State of the Northern Nigeria’, 1965. The work provides valuable information about people occupying the provinces, emirate, and state of northern Nigeria. However, the Tari was exclusive but Ayu was inclusive which gives this work a direction. Consequently, the work tends to recap the socio-economic and political life of the Ayu in just one page.
S.B. Salihu. “An investigation into the problem of indigenous education in Ayu, Ningon, and Gwantu Districts of Jama’a Local Government, Kaduna State, 1999”. The author tries to do justice to the work as he examines the problems of indigenous education in Ayu, Ningon, and Gwantu Districts of the said area. The work discusses the coming of Christianity and Western education and ISLAM and Islamic civilizations in the area of study. The work emphasized on the social an economic life the people thereby neglected their political aspect which is very important, but it contributed immensely to this work.
Isah U.A. “History of Ayu in Sanga Local Government Area of Kaduna State, 1904-1960”. The author did very well in discussing the origin of the Ayu people in which the Tari region is included. He looks at their pre-colonial and colonial socio-political and economic activities. The work provides a direct guide to explore the neglected area in the history of the Tari people.
This chapter has attempted to show the general background of the study. It was structured in seven parts. The first explained the statement of the problem, the second examine the aim and objectives, third discuses the significance and justification of the study, the forth deals with the scope and limitations of the study, the fifth examines the research methodology, sixth narrates the literature review and the seventh devoted to conclusion.